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日本权威期刊《东方学》发表姜生《汉代仙谱考》

发布时间:2015-02-04    点击次数:

日本权威期刊《东方学》第129辑(20151月)发表四川大学文化科技协同创新研发中心姜生教授的论文《汉代仙谱考》。

《东方学》系日本学术体制下查读类学术期刊。

主要内容略为介绍如次。

一般认为,“仙谱”似乎就是《列仙传》、《神仙传》、《位业图》乃至《仙鉴》之类的道教文献。在《列仙传》之前,是否还有更早的仙谱?其构成、标准、秩序如何?这个问题至今未被触及;且其形态究竟如何,遍寻古籍难窥一斑。然而众所周知,神仙思想长期盛行于战国秦汉,可以想见当时应当逐步形成了一套相应的仙谱(只是不一定以谨严的文本形式传世),以向世人证明神仙之实有。事实上,大量汉墓出土的画像石,已提供丰富数据,只是其真实属性长期不为学界所识,因而阻碍了对隐藏其中的汉代仙鬼谱系的把握,深刻制约着初期道教史研究之进展。

论文在综述前贤已有相关研究的基础上提出问题,以历史学与宗教学相结合的方法、以汉代墓祠图像资料为中心展开研究,指出,汉墓图像中不同时空的历史人物共事一堂的“不合理”情景,以及大量超出世俗经验的奇观异景,都暗示了图像所指示的空间对世俗时空秩序的超越特征。以武氏祠东壁、西壁及后壁为中心,综合考察各类画像石图像可以发现,汉代墓葬画像背后实际上隐含着一套宗教的价值评判标准:帝王、贤相、能将及刺客类图像,反映了汉代“自三代以来贤圣及英雄者为仙”的成仙标准;忠臣、孝子及列女类图像则表明,在汉代,生前为忠、孝、节、义之典范者亦得死后成仙。汉画中呈现的内在有序的人物图像内容应作为汉代仙传谱系来看待。神学化的儒家道德伦理,重武尚侠的社会风尚与历史上长期积淀的神仙思想相结合,乃是汉代“仙谱”所依以形成的思想要素。通过汉墓画像系统与早期道书文献的相互印证研究,不仅可以把握汉代仙谱的基本面貌,更可揭示当时的成仙标准。汉画仙鬼谱系乃汉代宗教信仰结构之反映,亦伴随汉魏历史遽变发生转折。这对于拓深汉代宗教史和思想史研究、重新认识初期道教起源所依托的文化形态,无疑具有钩沉起蔽的重大意义。

 

JIANG Sheng, “A Genealogy of Han-Dynasty Immortals,” TŌHŌGAKU (Eastern Studies) No.129 January 2015.

Abstract:

Figures from different eras of Chinese history—or from outside the secular realm altogether—routinely appear together in images and scenes depicted on Han tomb pictorial stones. At first glance seemingly illogical, this design indicates that the time and space depicted in these scenes transcended ordinary temporal and spatial boundaries. Making a comprehensive investigation of the categories of pictorial stones on the east, west, and rear walls of Wu Liang’s funerary shrine in Chia-hsiang, Shan-tung, one discovers that an encoded system of religious values lies hidden in Han-dynasty funerary pictorial images. Images of ancient emperors, worthy ministers, capable generals, and assassins reflect the Han idea that from the era of the Three Dynasties those possessing sagely virtue and dashing heroic qualities became immortals. Motifs of loyal ministers, filial sons, and exemplary women in Han funerary art make manifest the belief that if during life one was a model of loyalty, filiality, integrity, and righteousness one might become an immortal in the afterlife. Indeed, one can understand the sequences of figures that repeatedly appear in Han funerary art as a genealogy of sorts—depicting the Han gallery of immortals. This “immortal genealogy” of the Han dynasty contained elements of deep-seated Confucian ethics, admiration for martial valour, and long-standing popular beliefs about spirits and immortals. Therefore, the gallery of immortals and ghosts depicted in Han funerary art reflects Han religious beliefs and can also help illustrate a significant turning point in religiosity during the late Eastern Han and Wei. Through a careful examination of the corroborative interface between Han funerary art and Taoist texts, not only can we determine the nature of this “genealogy of immortals,” but we can also apprehend the requisite standards for becoming an immortal. Without doubt, this is a pivotal step in the study of Han religiosity and the origins of early Taoist thought.

 

 

 

 

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